Chicago Style Format. The Chicago Manual of Style
The Chicago format is one of the most widely used style manuals. It contains comprehensive instructions for formatting, referencing, and citing works that ought to be published. In this article, the expert team from ElitesWriting.com will share exhaustive information on the Chicago Manual of Style with a detailed guide on how to format a Chicago style paper. Keep reading to learn how to write in Chicago/Turabian style with ease.
What is Chicago Style
The Chicago Manual of Style is a compilation of formatting, referencing, and citing rules applied to works written in American English (mostly) and published in historical or social sciences journals. The manual was created by the University of Chicago Press and the first version was released in 1906. Currently, at the time of this writing, it is on its 17th edition.
The guidelines for this style of formatting were shaped for professionals in social sciences who publish their articles in journals, magazines, etc. An alternative to Chicago style that is geared more for students and researchers is Turabian format. It consists of slightly different requirements for citing and formatting academic papers. This style also applies to papers written in social sciences—in particular: History, Business, Fine Art, etc.
In contrast to many other formats, the Chicago Manual of Style suggests that authors use two different systems for citing sources: the Notes-Bibliography System and the Author-Date System.
The Notes-Bibliography method requires placing numbered footnotes in the text with shortened versions of citations located at the bottom of the page. The full citations are then gathered on a separate Bibliography page at the end of the document. This method of documenting sources is the most preferred one for documents in the humanities disciplines.
The second method, the Author-Date System, requires writers to include parenthetical citations in the text after a quotation or any other borrowed information. Citations in parentheses should include the last name of the original source’s author, the year when it was published, and the page where the information you’ve used can be found in the source. Every citation needs to have a relevant entry on a References page at the end of the paper. Unlike the Notes-Bibliography method, the Author-Date System is applied to papers in sciences and social sciences.
As it was said, the Chicago format is closely interlinked with another style manual called Turabian. It is a referencing and citing system shaped on the basis of the Chicago style. This format was named after its author — Kate Turabian, from the University of Chicago. This format is most often used for writing papers in social sciences, for example, Economics.
How Are Chicago and Turabian Styles Different?
In a nutshell, Kate Turabian adapted the Chicago style for students and researchers. Thus, the main difference is that the Turabian style is simpler, shorter, and contains fewer requirements. In particular, it doesn’t contain any instructions on publishing since, unlike the Chicago style which is created for professionals who publish their works, the Turabian style was created to guide students while writing papers and essays. Still, most of the guidelines applicable to the Chicago paper format would be the same for a Turabian style paper, so, with the help of this article, you can write in both styles.
What are the main elements of a Chicago format paper? Both the Chicago and Turabian styles imply that the author should divide his document into three parts: Title Page (cover page), Main Body, and Bibliography.
Here is a list of general guidelines applicable to every Chicago style essay:
- Font: Clear and easy to read, the preferred fonts are Times New Roman or Courier
- Font Size: Generally, not less than 10pt, but preferably 12pt
- Space: Doubled everywhere except within block quotes, table titles, notes, figure captions, and bibliography or References entries
- Spaces Between Paragraphs: None
- Margins: Not less than 1”
- Chicago Style Page Numbers: Placed at the top right corner of each page excluding the title page, so the first page of the main body should be numbered at 1
- Footnotes: Should be assigned on quoted or paraphrased passages if you use the Notes-Bibliography method.
Chicago Style Cover Page
The title page, or cover page, is the main introduction to your work, and spacing is its crucial aspect. You should ask your teacher for specific details on how to structure your title page, but the general guidelines on how to structure a Chicago cover page are:
- The title of the paper or article should be placed one third below the top of the page and centered.
- The document’s title should be followed by the author’s name, class information, and the date (all placed several lines below the title).
- All double-spaced.
- If you need to include a subtitle as well, end the title line with a colon and type the subtitle on the following line.
Note: While all documents written in the Chicago style should have a title page, this rule may not always apply to papers written in Turabian style. Academic papers that follow this style guide may either include a title page or provide the document’s title on the first page, followed by the main body. However, if your professor demands including a cover page, the rules mentioned above apply as well.
Chicago Style Bibliography: Footnotes and Endnotes
If you follow the Notes-Bibliography method, both Chicago and Turabian writing styles imply using footnotes or endnotes whenever you quote an external source directly or include paraphrased information. When using the Author-Date style, on the contrary, you need to include parentheses in text to cite your sources.
Chicago Style Footnotes
Footnotes are notes placed at the bottom of each page. Each Chicago style footnote is numbered, and its number should correspond to the number placed after a quote, passage, or paraphrased piece of information. Chicago style footnotes can perform any of the following roles:
- Provide shortened citations to quotes and paraphrased materials.
- Give additional explanations or notes on some terms, phrases, etc.
- Provide background information when necessary.
- Give links to outside sources.
- Mention copyright permissions, etc.
Here is a standard Chicago footnote format to follow:
- Place footnotes at the bottom of the page.
- Include a footnote on the same page where the information you are citing is given.
- Number each note with the same number placed after a quote or piece you are citing.
- When making the first note for a particular source, include all of the following information: full name of the author, source title, and publication details.
- When you cite that same source again, the note only requires the surname of the author, a shortened form of the title (if the length of the title is more than 4 words), and page numbers.
- If you cite the same source and page more than two times, use the word “Ibid.” which means “from the same place.” If they are from different pages, use the word “Ibid.”, but also follow it with a page number.